The transverse ridges, located at the anterior portion of the hard palate, are known as the rugae. A bulge of tissue at the midline, lingual to the central incisors, is the incisive papilla. Both the rugae and incisive papilla are susceptible to trauma - mainly burns from hot food. Treatment is palliative and usually involves avoiding further insult to tissues until healing is complete.
The soft palate extends posteriorly from the hard palate. The pendulum of tissue descending from the midline of the soft palate is the uvula. Immediately posterior to the hard palate, at the junction of the soft palate, are the palatine fovea, which are small pits or depressions at the midline.
The torus palatinus is a benign bone overgrowth that may be noted in some individuals at the midline of the hard palate. Torus palatinus is rarely seen in children younger than age 14. It is a normal variant and often does not require treatment.