An ethical dilemma occurs when one or more ethical principles are in conflict. Several values and related rules support the principles of ethics and help the problem solving process when a clinician is making ethical decisions. Values and concepts presented are founded in ethical principles and the theory upon which those principles are based. Occasionally these values or concepts might add to the complexity and conflict of the situation, but the goal is to add clarity when resolving ethical issues. These rules then, along with the supporting principles and values, can provide the clinician guidance in the decision-making process.
These terms and concepts are informed consent, confidentiality, paternalism, and prima facie duty and are rooted in the health care principles.