Bacterial and host-derived proteins, enzymes, inflammatory mediators, ions and minerals in saliva may be used as salivary biomarkers for the diagnosis of dental caries. Statherin, proline-rich proteins and histatin-1 levels are considerably elevated with dental caries.17,18
Salivary calcium and phosphate concentrations are decreased.19,20
The concentration of salivary biomarkers associated with Streptococcus mutans
, and Actinomyces spp.
are considerably higher in patients with dental caries and in those at risk of dental caries.21