Dental radiographs, especially panoramic images, provide valuable information for both the clinician and the patient. The information contained within a panoramic image is helpful for screening, diagnosis and patient education. As with any type of ionizing radiation, proper safety measures should be taken to ensure that both the patient and operator are protected. In addition, there is a need to be aware of the total dose of radiation patients are receiving through various medical and dental procedures. Through the concepts described in this course, dental radiographers can take steps to reduce patient radiation and to produce diagnostic panoramic images consistently.