Although the long-term success of dental implants is relatively high and their function and utility have been widely documented, peri-implant diseases, including peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, are common and can prove to be a clinical conundrum for practitioners. Laser, which is an acronym for “light amplification through stimulation of emission radiation”, therapy may be one of the therapeutic approaches to treat peri-implant disease as an adjunct to nonsurgical or surgical periodontal therapy.18 Commercially available lasers that have been used for implant surface disinfection include: carbon dioxide (CO2), diode, erbium yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG), and neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG).18,102-104 Each laser generally has a fixed wavelength that determined the properties of the laser beam and its effects on tissues, materials, and microbes (Figure 4). For example, certain laser types are utilized and designed to target certain substances or tissues, known as chromophores.104 These may include: water, blood, pigmentation, cell types, collagen, bone, minerals, and/or bacteria (Table 1).
|Diode||450-1064 nm||Melanin, hemoglobin||Hot; soft tissue|
|Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)||1064 nm||Melanin, hemoglobin||Hot; soft tissue|
|Erbium yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG)||2940 nm||Water, hydroxyapatite||Cold; hard or all tissue|
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)||9300 to 10,600 nm/td>||Water, hydroxyapatite||Hot or cold; soft or all tissue|