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Caries Process and Prevention Strategies: Diagnosis

Course Number: 373

References / Additional Resources

  1. Ismail AI. Clinical diagnosis of precavitated carious lesions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997;25(1):13-23. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1997.tb00895.x.

  2. Fejerskov O, Nyvad B, Kidd E. Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management, 3rd ed. Oxford, United Kingdom. Blackwell-Wiley; 2015.

  3. Pitts NB, Zero DT, Marsh PD, et al. Dental caries. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17030. Published 2017 May 25. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.30.

  4. Tsang P, Qi F, Shi W. Medical approach to dental caries: fight the disease, not the lesion. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28(2):188-198.

  5. Pitts NB, Stamm JW. International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials (ICW-CCT)--final consensus statements: agreeing where the evidence leads. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C125-C128. doi:10.1177/154405910408301s27.

  6. Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):51-59. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2.

  7. Wilkins EM. Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist, 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Wolters Kluwer; 2017.

  8. Lussi A. Comparison of different methods for the diagnosis of fissure caries without cavitation. Caries Res. 1993;27(5):409-416. doi:10.1159/000261572.

  9. Ekstrand K, Qvist V, Thylstrup A. Light microscope study of the effect of probing in occlusal surfaces. Caries Res. 1987;21(4):368-374. doi:10.1159/000261041.

  10. World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 5th ed. Geneva, Switzerland. WHO; 2013.

  11. Ismail AI, Pitts NB, Tellez M, et al. The International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™) An Example of a Caries Management Pathway. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S9. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-S1-S9.

  12. Ismail AI. Visual and visuo-tactile detection of dental caries. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C56-C66. doi:10.1177/154405910408301s12.

  13. Gugnani N, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gupta M, Sharma M. International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): A New Concept. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;4(2):93-100. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1089.

  14. Ekstrand KR, Kuzmina I, Bjørndal L, Thylstrup A. Relationship between external and histologic features of progressive stages of caries in the occlusal fossa. Caries Res. 1995;29(4):243-250. doi:10.1159/000262076.

  15. Ekstrand KR, Ricketts DN, Kidd EA. Reproducibility and accuracy of three methods for assessment of demineralization depth of the occlusal surface: an in vitro examination. Caries Res. 1997;31(3):224-231. doi:10.1159/000262404.

  16. Nyvad B, Machiulskiene V, Baelum V. Reliability of a new caries diagnostic system differentiating between active and inactive caries lesions. Caries Res. 1999;33(4):252-260. doi:10.1159/000016526.

  17. Pitts NB, Ekstrand KR; ICDAS Foundation. International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and its International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS) - methods for staging of the caries process and enabling dentists to manage caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2013;41(1):e41-e52. doi:10.1111/cdoe.12025.

  18. Fejerskov O, Luan WM, Nyvad B, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Holm-Pedersen P. Active and inactive root surface caries lesions in a selected group of 60- to 80-year-old Danes. Caries Res. 1991;25(5):385-391. doi:10.1159/000261396.

  19. Mjör IA. Clinical diagnosis of recurrent caries. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005;136(10):1426-1433. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2005.0057.

  20. Jenson L, Budenz AW, Featherstone JD, Ramos-Gomez FJ, Spolsky VW, Young DA. Clinical protocols for caries management by risk assessment. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007;35(10):714-723.

  21. Machiulskiene V, Nyvad B, Baelum V. A comparison of clinical and radiographic caries diagnoses in posterior teeth of 12-year-old Lithuanian children. Caries Res. 1999;33(5):340-348. doi:10.1159/000016532.

  22. Machiulskiene V, Nyvad B, Baelum V. Comparison of diagnostic yields of clinical and radiographic caries examinations in children of different age. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2004;5(3):157-162.

  23. Wenzel A. Digital radiography and caries diagnosis. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 1998;27(1):3-11. doi:10.1038/sj.dmfr.4600321.

  24. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP publication 103. Ann ICRP. 2007;37(2-4):1-332. doi:10.1016/j.icrp.2007.10.003.

  25. Preston-Martin S, White SC. Brain and salivary gland tumors related to prior dental radiography: implications for current practice. J Am Dent Assoc. 1990;120(2):151-158. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.1990.0026.

  26. Shwartz M, Pliskin JS, Gröndahl H, Boffa J. The frequency of bitewing radiographs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1986;61(3):300-305. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(86)90379-8.

  27. Lith A, Gröndahl HG. Intervals between bitewing examinations in young patients when applying a radiologic algorithm. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992;20(4):181-186. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1992.tb01712.x.

  28. Mejàre I. Bitewing examination to detect caries in children and adolescents--when and how often?. Dent Update. 2005;32(10):588-597. doi:10.12968/denu.2005.32.10.588.

  29. Teo TK, Ashley PF, Louca C. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the use of ICDAS, DIAGNOdent pen and CarieScan PRO for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary molar teeth. Clin Oral Investig. 2014;18(3):737-744. doi:10.1007/s00784-013-1021-4.

  30. Fejerskov O. Concepts of dental caries and their consequences for understanding the disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997;25(1):5-12. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1997.tb00894.x.

  31. Pierce KM, Rozier RG, Vann WF Jr. Accuracy of pediatric primary care providers' screening and referral for early childhood caries. Pediatrics. 2002;109(5):. doi:10.1542/peds.109.5.e82.

  32. Okah A, Williams K, Talib N, Mann K. Promoting Oral Health in Childhood: A Quality Improvement Project. Pediatrics. 2018;141(6):e20172396. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-2396.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available